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Role of SLP
in FEES
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ASHA's website (for SLPs)
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Dr. Langmore (founder of FEES) website
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FEES Research

Need for FEES &

FEES vs Bedside Screen

Gerrie JJW, et al. Bedside screening tests vs. videofluoroscopy or fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing to detect dysphagia in patients with neurological disorders: systematic review. Journal of Advanced Nursing. Oct 2008; 477-493.

Leder, S.B., Espinosa, M.S. Aspiration risk after acute stroke: comparison of clinical examination and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. Dysphagia. 2002; 17:214-218.

Leder, S. B., & Warner, H. L. (2018). Comparing Simultaneous Clinical Swallow Evaluations and Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluations of Swallowing: Changing Practice Patterns.  Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups, 3(13), 124–132. doi: 10.1044/persp3.sig13.124.

Smith, CH, et al. Incidence and patient characteristics associated with silent aspiration in the acute care setting. Dysphagia. 1999; 14: 1-7.

 

Smithard, D.G., O’Neill, P.A., Park, C., et al. Can bedside assessment reliably exclude aspiration following acute stroke? Age and Ageing. 1998;27i(2), 99-106.

Takahashi, N, et al. Videoendoscopic assessment of swallowing function to predict the future incidence of pneumonia of the elderly. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation. 2012; 39; 429-437.

Warnecke, T., et al. Fiberoptic endoscopic dysphagia severity scale predicts outcome after acute stroke. Cerebrovascular Disease. July 2009;28(3):283-9

About FEES Procedure,

Scope of Practice

 

Langmore SE, Schatz, K, Olsen, N.  Fiberoptic endoscopic examination of swallowing safety: A new procedure.  Dysphagia. December 1988, Volume 2,  Issue 4, pp 216–219.

Langmore SE. History of Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing for Evaluation and Management of Pharyngeal Dysphagia: Changes over the Years. Dysphagia. 2017 Feb;32(1):27-38.

The Role of the Speech-Language Pathologist in the Performance and Interpretation of Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing: Position Statement. (2005). doi: 10.1044/policy.ps2005-00112

Safety of FEES

Aviv JE, et al. The safety of flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing with sensory testing (FEESST): an analysis of 500 consecutive evaluations. Dysphagia. 2000;15(1):39-44.

Aviv, JE, et al.  Flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing with sensory testing: patient characteristics and analysis of safety in 1340 consecutive examinations.  Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology. 2005;114:173-176.

Dziewas, R., et al. Safety and Clinical Impact of FEES – Results of the FEES-Registry. Neurological Research and Practice, 1(16). 2019.  Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1186/s42466-019-0021-5

Nacci A, et al. Complications with Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing in 2,820 Examinations. ENT, Audiology and Phoniatrics Unit, Department of Neurosciences, University of Pisa, Italy. Folia Phoniatr Logop. 2016;68(1):37-45. doi: 10.1159/000446985. Epub 2016 Jul 26.

 

Warnecke, T., et al. The safety of fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing in acute stroke patients. Retrieved July 18, 2009 from www.stroke.ahajournals.org.

Willging JP. Endoscopic evaluation of swallowing in children. Int J Pediatric Otorhinolaryngjol. 1995; 32(Suppl):S107-8.

FEES vs MBS

Aviv, J.E. Prospective, randomized outcome study of endoscopy vs. modified barium swallow in patients with dysphagia. Laryngoscope. 2000; 100, 563-574.

 

Bastian R.  Video endoscopic evaluation of patients with dysphagia:  an adjunct to the modified barium swallow.  Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery; 1991. 104(3):339-50.

 

Kelly AM, Drinnan MJ, Leslie P. Assessing penetration and aspiration: how do videofluoroscopy and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing compare? Laryngoscope. 2007;117(10):1723-7.

Mu, CH, et al. Evaluation of swallowing safety with fiberoptic endoscope: Comparison with video fluoroscopic technique.  Laryngoscope. 1997;107, 396-401.

Rao N, et al. Gold-standard? Analysis of the videofluoroscopic and fiberoptic endoscopic swallow examinations. Jj Appl Res. 2003; 3:89-96

Smith CH, et al. Incidence and patient characteristics associated with silent aspiration in the acute care setting. Dysphagia. 1999;14(1):1-7.

Wu, C.H., et al. Evaluation of swallowing safety with fiberoptic endoscope: Comparison with video fluoroscopic technique.  Laryngoscope. 1997; 107, 396-401.

Patient Comfort and Anesthesia

 

Kamarunas, EE, et al. Effects of topical nasal anesthetic on fiberoptic endoscopic examination of swallowing with sensory testing. Dysphagia. July 2013.

Lester, S. et al. The effects of topical anesthetic on swallowing during nasoendoscopy. Laryngoscope. July 2013; 123(7):1704-8.

Leder, SB, et al.  A prospective, double-blind, randomized study on the use of a topical anesthetic, vasoconstrictor, and placebo during transnasal flexible fiberoptic endoscopy.  Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research.  1997;40:1352-1357.

 

O’Dea, Merideth B. et al., Effect of Lidocaine on Swallowing During FEES in Patients With Dysphagia. Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology, 2015; Vol. 124(7) 537–544

 

​Singh, V., Brockbank, M.J., Todd, G.B.  Flexible transnasal endoscopy: is local anesthetic necessary?  Journal of Laryngology and Otology.  1997;111:616-618

Specific Populations

Hartnick, C. J., Miller, C., Hartley, B. E., & Willging, J. P. (2000). Pediatric fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology, 109(11), 996–999.

 

Leder, S.B. & Sasaki, C.T. (2001). Use of FEES to assess and manage patients with head and neck cancer. In Langmore, S.E., editor. Endoscopic evaluation and treatment of swallowing disorders. New York: Thieme; 201-212.

Matthews, C. T., & Coyle, J. L. (2010). Reducing Pneumonia Risk Factors in Patients with Dysphagia Who Have A Tracheotomy: What Role Can SLPs Play? The ASHA Leader, 15(6). doi: 10.1044/leader.ftr4.15062010.np.

Reynolds, J. (2020). When a Child Needs an Instrumental Swallowing Assessment. The ASHA Leader, 25(1), 40–42. doi: 10.1044/leader.otp.25012020.40.

Suterwala, M. S., Reynolds, J., Carroll, S., Sturdivant, C., & Armstrong, E. S. (2017). Using fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing to detect laryngeal penetration and aspiration in infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. Journal of Perinatology, 37(4), 404–408. doi:10.1038/jp.2016.239

 

Willette, S., Molinaro, L. H., Thompson, D. M., & Schroeder, J. W. Jr. (2016). Fiberoptic examination of swallowing in the breastfeeding infant. Laryngoscope, 126(7), 1681–1686. 

Willging, J. P. (1995). Endoscopic evaluation of swallowing in children. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, (32), S107–S108.

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